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Regenerative Medicine V:
Umbilical cord tissue is a soft substance (Warton’s Jelly) within the umbilical cord that provides cushioning and support to the umbilical vein and arteries. As a father of five children I’ve had the opportunity to cut this tissue and get a close up to it’s uniqueness. The cushioning and structural support elements from the soft substance consists of structural proteins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors.
Hyaluronic acid is the most plentiful component of the glycosaminoglycans found in the umbilical cord matrix.
Hyaluronic acid is a key factor in the viscoelastic properties in the synovial fluid of joints.
Injections into joints can help with a decrease in pain and increase function.
Regenerative Medicine Part IV:
Amniotic tissue is a unique allograft (a tissue from a donor). This graft is taken from placental tissue and amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid contains growth factors, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and essential molecules. The allograft is the preserved cytokines, growth factors and proteins. Amniotic membranes contain a high concentration of cellular scaffolding, cytokines, growth factors and proteins. The fluid is regularly used for injecting painful arthritic joints, degenerative tendons or ligaments and into chronic wounds. The membrane is commonly used for wound care, tendon repairs and large cartilage repairs. Amniotic tissue has played a significant role in allowing the physician and surgeon to optimize healing, decrease inflammation and increase function.
Regenerative Medicine Part III:
Stem cell therapy has many different classifications. Physicians have two different choices with accessing these cells. They can take it from the patient through a bone marrow aspirate or they can get it from companies that use post birth placental tissue and umbilical cord tissue to harvest the cells. In this section we will discuss Bone Marrow Aspirate as a way to harvest mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can turn into a variety of cells including; bone cells, cartilage cells, muscle cells and fat cells. The ability of differentiation decreases with the patients age. In the foot and ankle, a bone marrow aspirate can be taken from the heel bone and this concentrated fluid is then re-injected into the patient.
This has been shown in studies to decrease pain and increase functionality.
Regenerative Medicine Part II:
Platelet-Rich Plasma is one regenerative medicine option that many physicians have used for years. The process is simple and done in the office. Patients have their own blood drawn at the physicians office. It is than placed in a centrifuge, and spun down to separate the platelet poor plasma, Buffy Coat (PRP) and red blood cells. The Buffy coat has the greatest number of platelets and growth factors. This is injected in the joint or soft tissue. PRP has been used to decrease inflammation and pain in joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments. It is often used to optimize healing after surgical procedures, or combined with other biologics to enhance bone healing.
PRP suppresses the inflammatory environment through a locally applied concentrate of platelets, leukocytes, and growth factors. PRP therapy aims to control inflammatory factors in a degenerative environment through the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors and signaling effects.
Studies have shown that PRP can be effective with pain reduction and increased healing.
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